DNA Fingerprinting, also termed as DNA Profiling, Genotyping, DNA Typing or Genetic Fingerprinting is one of the most recent advancements in Forensic Science. This technique was discovered by Sir. Alec Jeffreys in 1984. While going through this network, he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as minisatellites), do not contribute to the functions of genes, and are repeated within genes. Jeffreys recognized that each individual has a unique pattern of minisatellites (the only exceptions being multiple individuals from a single zygote, such as identical twins). For the extraction of DNA, a sample of cells such as skin, hair, blood, saliva etc. is required.
According to this technique, the DNA is extracted from the cells of skin, hair, blood, saliva etc., and then it is purified. Jeffrey’s original approach was based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). In the RFLP technology, the DNA was cut at specific points along the strand with proteins known as restriction enzymes. The enzymes produced fragments of varying lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to an electric current (electrophoresis): the shorter the fragment, the more quickly it moved toward the positive pole (anode). The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments were then subjected to a blotting technique in which they were split into single strands and transferred to a nylon sheet. The fragments underwent autoradiography in which they were exposed to DNA probes—pieces of synthetic DNA that were made radioactive and that bound to the minisatellites. A piece of X-ray film was then exposed to the fragments, and a dark mark was produced at any point where a radioactive probe had become attached. The resultant pattern of marks could then be analyzed. Other than RFLP, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Short Tandem Repeats (STR) and Variable Number Tandem Repeats are also used for the analysis procedure.
DNA Fingerprinting technique is used in cases of sexual assaults, missing persons, paternity-maternity issues and certain other criminal cases. This course structure would make the students aware of the complex techniques and analytical methods employed by the scientists in DNA Profiling, and the revolution that the discovery of DNA Fingerprinting brought into the criminal investigation system.
MODULE 1 – CONCEPT AND FUNDAMENTALS OF DNA
This module gives the information about the DNA fingerprinting such as structure of DNA, packaging and how it is used for the criminal investigation purpose. DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique for establishing the identity of an individual and to create a link between the biological evidence and a suspect in criminal investigation. This module covers the experiments of DNA and RNA, which is used as a genetic material, and also contain the information about, how it helps in criminal investigation.
MODULE 2 – TYPES OF DNA AND RNA
Present module describes detailed information about DNA and RNA and the types of DNA and RNA. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a genetic material and carries the genetic information and of three types which are, B- DNA, A- DNA and Z- DNA. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is also defined in this module and the structure and types are also mentioned. RNA is single stranded molecules which helps in protein synthesis and are of three types such as, m- RNA, t- RNA and r- RNA.
MODULE 3 – HUMAN GENETICS
This module defines the information of human genetics and their developmental history. The concept of gene such as structure of gene, history, split gene, pseudo gene, non-coding gene, overlapping gene and multi gene families are also described. This module also tells about the Mendelian inheritance, multiple alleles, human genome structure and its delivery. The causes, types and detection of mutation and heredity and the variation in human genetics are also very well defined in this module. It includes molecular basis of heritable human diseases, gene mapping and human genome project.
MODULE 4 – POPULATION GENETICS
This module define the Population genetics is a subdivision of genetics that deal with the genetic difference within and between the populations. On the basis of genetic drift and inbreeding coefficient, the medelian population is defined. This module also include the allele and genotype frequencies which remain constant throughout the population in the absence of evolutionary influence defined by Hardy – Weinberg because the gene flow occur from one generation to another generation. Sometime the unfavorable genetic material (genetic load) in the genes of a population due to the mutation.
MODULE 5 – EXTRACTION AND EVOLUTION OF DNA
This module defines the DNA, a genetic material used for the individualization and the method through which, DNA can be extracted from the different sources: blood, semen, saliva, bones, hair, teeth, body tissues and nails. This module also include the function of restriction enzymes through which the DNA are recognized at a specific site. The DNA Extraction methods include the Organic (Phenol-Chloroform) Extraction, Non-Organic (Proteinase K and Salting out), Chelex (Ion Exchange Resin) Extraction, FTA Paper, Silica Based (Silica Exchange Resin-Qiagen) and Qia Amp Extraction. DNA is found in very low quantity which create the problem for the examination, for this problem, the PCR technique is used to increase the DNA quantity. DNA is analyzed through Slot-Blot Method (Quantitative), Yield-gel Analysis (Qualitative), UV/Visible Spectrophotometer, Gel Electrophoresis and Southern Blotting.
MODULE 6 – DNA FINGERPRINTING
This module contains DNA fingerprinting which is a method used to individualize the person through its unique pattern. Every individual has the different pattern/ sequences called polymorphism. These patterns are detected by different methods i.e. HLA typing, RFLP analysis and PCR amplification. By the help of DNA, the sex determination can be estimated through the techniques like AMP FLP, RAPD, Y-STR and Mitochondrial DNA. Now days, DNA are analyzed through the DNA chip, an advance technique.
MODULE 7 – EVALUATION OF RESULT CONTAMINATION OF DNA FINGERPRINTING
This procedure is used as one worth of identification once an assailant has left some kind of biological fluid or blood sample at the crime scene and when no visual credentials is possible. It will define you isolation from blood, purification and quantifications, preparation of lectins and testing their activities against body fluids & tissues, frequency calculations, interpretation, allele frequency determination, Match probability- database and quality control and certification and accreditation.
MODULE 8 – IMPORTANCE AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVES OF DNA FINGERPRINTING
This module is framed to make the students understand what actually DNA fingerprinting is all about. This module would help students gather information and use of application of DNA techniques in the legal proceedings. Under this module, legal standard for admissibility of DNA profiling- procedural & ethical concerns and status of development of DNA profiling in India & abroad.
ONLINE EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION PROCESS
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled in online courses. After the completion of the respective course duration, you will be notified with your exam date and other required details. You are supposed to access your examination portal on the allotted date and time for giving your exam. Concerned authorities will assist you, if you face any kind of problem during your exam.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
You will have combination of Multiple Choice Questions, in the form of multiple option and True & False.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the given postal address by address confirmation. Therefore, the students are always requested to mention their correct and complete address on their application form, in order to avoid further confusion and disappointment.
Note: Every student must check their email for examination notifications and other updates. Also you are supposed to update your recent postal address and other relevant details.
SIFS INDIA, provides online education for Certificate, Diploma, and PG Diploma courses in the Forensic Science discipline. The Forensic Science programmes are appropriate for all students of any discipline. The course is ideal for those who, whim to secure a stand-alone certification in Forensic Science and whose first degree is in an unrelated field. We aims to provide a thorough education in Forensic Science from a variety of perspectives with multiple dimensions.
After completion of the enrollment processes, a username and password would be generate and provide you through email to access e-books and study materials allied to your programme code within five working days.
COMPLETE LEARNING OF STATEMENT (LOS)
In online education, lectures might be conducted online via Learning Management System (LMS) and instant chatting or messaging. Some course have ‘virtual’ classes; where the enrolled students participate through webcams sources. Through your unique username and password, students can access their profile, study materials, instructor guidance, assignments, quizzes, examination, scores, and so on.
MAKE IMPORTANT BOOKMARK FOR FUTURE ACCESS
In Every LOS, we are constantly reviewing the latest study materials being the very finest course material now available for your programme code. We provides the modified technology inside the portal likewise; the bookmark option to build a specified learning process. Bookmark is also an advantageous for future access. Your learning methods would be helpful to choose objectives. Bookmark giving you the chance to study exactly; what you need in directive to improvement.
MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES
Go Paperless! Online database are much easier than searching through paper files. LOS giving you the note preparation option at the time of study. It would be great method to create and deploy your own written notes for future admittance.
TAKE MULTIPLE QUIZZES FOR PRACTICE EXAM
LMS is the best virtual learning systems; to use their own login portal. Multiple quizzes are the most of the latest questions and updates related to the LOS. It would be flexible to practice for examination preparation.
INTERACT WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR FOR YOUR QUERIES.
Online learning system also provides a forum for discussion with instructor, where you can post and quickly ask your quarries, enhance and collaborate your learning experiences. It would be hard to mature a relationship with your online instructor, you may never meet, but it is worth the exertion to keep communicating and contacting through the online support system.
The assignment submission process diverges depending upon the course you enrolled. Assignment is definitely the indispensable thing in order to complete your programme. It comprises 5 questions with 1000 word limit. Assignment carries a 100% weightage for evaluation of examination. Some key instructions to get good grade in your assignment such as-
1. Read the study materials in depth from portal LOS.
2. Understand the assignment questions and keep within the word limit.
3. Write the assignments yourself which should be plagiarism free.
4. Complete the assignments in given duration and submit after date you will not able to access the assignment.
5. Write your answers in the appropriate format and add the references at the end of your assignment etc.
Online examination system is designed to offer you with an education wherever you are. There are a wide range multiple options. After the completion of the respective course duration, you would have access to your examination portal on the allotted date and time. In LMS examination procedure, you will allocated for examination in a particular time, so that you must give your examination in allocated date and time on your online examination portal.
1. You must have to complete your examination in given time period accordingly to your course instructor. You cannot attempt your examination twice.
2. If you are not able to attempt your examination, you must to inform your instructor prior the time period and give specific reason to conduct re-schedule examination date*.