Forensic Biology & Serology, as the name clarifies is the study related to the examination of bodily/biological fluids (blood, semen, saliva, urine, vaginal discharge etc.) found at a crime scene, in order to be presented before the court of law. Other than the examination of bodily fluids, this subject also includes the determination of species of origin and the grouping of bloodstains. One of the basic principles of Forensic Science is to maintain the integrity of the encountered evidences at the crime scene by maintaining an apt and systematic collection and preservation process, ensuring the point that during the transportation no evidence gets contaminated. Therefore, due to this fact the prime duty of the investigating officer is to emphasis on an appropriate manner of collection and preservation of the fragile evidences.
Within this course structure, students will be taught theoretically as well as practically regarding the mechanism that works behind the examination of bodily fluids as blood, saliva etc. The students will be taught about the preliminary (Benzidine and Phenolphthalein tests) and confirmatory tests (Teichmann, Takayama and Wagenaar tests) of blood and their significances independently.
Under this course structure, students will be provided with a detailed information regarding what all evidences can be encountered commonly at a crime scene, what activities might have taken place at the crime scene before the crime was committed, for instance: the presence of semen may direct that a possible physical intimacy must have occurred, may be consensually or vehemently. Likewise, the presence of blood may denote certain signs of struggle and physical violent at the crime scene. Therefore, the investigator should have the ability to link the evidences with the incidents that might have taken place. The forensic value of each evidence is of great help in solving the mysteries, therefore students will be practically exposed to the mock crime scenes where they will be able to judge their capabilities and nurture their skills to prepare themselves as future Forensic Investigators.
MODULE 1 – INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SEROLOGY
Forensic Serology plays a significant role in the criminal judiciary world. The module gives a detail description about the nature, characteristics and constituents of blood – Plasma, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells. Blood is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at crime scene. Here in this module function, significance and collection, preservation and packaging of blood has been discussed in detail.
MODULE 2 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERNS AND ITS CLASSIFICATION
Blood pattern is one of the important and frequent evidence encountered at the crime scene. The physical property of blood give rise to the blood spatter pattern which occurs with the involvement of numerous mechanism. Here in this module scholars will come across the types of bloodstains and classification of bloodstain pattern.
MODULE 3 – BLOOD STAIN PATTERN ANALYSIS
In this online learning course scholars will learn how to evaluate and interpret the blood stain pattern encountered at crime scene. Blood-stain pattern analysis helps the investigator to reconstruct the actions that produced the blood-sheds. Forensic expert examine the shape, size, location and distribution of the blood patterns to procedure expert opinions about what did happened. Scholars will also learn how to photograph the bloodstain pattern encountered at the crime scene and its forensic significance. Blood pattern analysis is equally reliable and can be applied by the use of various concept of physics and mathematical calculation.
MODULE 4 – IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS
Various techniques has been used for examination and identification of blood and bloodstain. Such as Physical Examination, Presumptive Tests, Confirmatory or Microcrystal Test, Chromatographic Methods, Spectrophotometric Methods, Electrophoresis.
MODULE 5 – DETERMINATION OF SPECIES OF ORIGIN
This module focusses on importance of examination of bodily fluids from a forensic perspective. The importance of tests for species of origin, single diffusion in one dimension, single diffusion in two dimensions, immuno-electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis (Laurel technique), two-dimensional electrophoresis, crossed-over electrophoresis, antihuman globulin serum inhibition test, passive hem agglutination methods, precipitin-inhibition test, mixed ant globulin method, sensitized latex particle method, testing procedures- choice of antisera, preparation of stain extract, ring test, immuno-diffusion test and crossed over electrophoresis, other factors in the precipitin tests- precipitating antibody, balanced antibody-antigen concentration, the diffusion coefficient, optimal environment and the specificity of the antiserum.
MODULE 6 – SEROGENETIC MARKER
Under this module, students would be taught about the major blood groups, the ABO system, RH system and the MN system followed by the new approaches used in blood stain grouping. Different type of polymorphic enzyme typing such as Phosphoglucomutase (PGM), Glyoxalase (GLO-I), Esterase D (ESD), Adenylate Kinase (AK), Adenosine Deaminase (ADA), Erythrocytes Acid Phosphatase (ESD), Phosphogluconate Dehydogenase (PGD), has been discussed in details.
MODULE 7 – TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GROUP
Blood group detection techniques would be familiarized you to the lattes crust method, absorption inhibition method, mixed agglutination, absorption elution method- test-tube method, thread method (Howard and martin technique) and ammonia extraction Method, determination of A and AB sub-groups, grouping of MN system and grouping of the RH System.
MODULE 8 – SEMEN
Branch of Forensic Biology is the application of biological fluid examination techniques to legitimate examinations. The investigation of body fluids, mainly the likes of blood, saliva, semen, all of which are usually found at scenes of crime. Various aspects of examination of seminal fluid would be familiarize you to nature of semen, location and collection, scene of occurrence, techniques, chemical tests and biological tests.
MODULE 9 – OTHER BODY FLUIDS AND THEIR EXAMINATION
Here in this module scholars would learn about the commonly found bodily fluids at a crime scene. each body fluids are further described in detail such as the nature, collection techniques and examination of saliva, urine, faeces, sweat, nasal secretions, tears, human milk and its collection techniques.
ONLINE EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION PROCESS
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled in online courses. After the completion of the respective course duration, you will be notified with your exam date and other required details. You are supposed to access your examination portal on the allotted date and time for giving your exam. Concerned authorities will assist you, if you face any kind of problem during your exam.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
You will have combination of Multiple Choice Questions, in the form of multiple option and True & False.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the given postal address by address confirmation. Therefore, the students are always requested to mention their correct and complete address on their application form, in order to avoid further confusion and disappointment.
Note: Every student must check their email for examination notifications and other updates. Also you are supposed to update your recent postal address and other relevant details.
SIFS INDIA, provides online education for Certificate, Diploma, and PG Diploma courses in the Forensic Science discipline. The Forensic Science programmes are appropriate for all students of any discipline. The course is ideal for those who, whim to secure a stand-alone certification in Forensic Science and whose first degree is in an unrelated field. We aims to provide a thorough education in Forensic Science from a variety of perspectives with multiple dimensions.
After completion of the enrollment processes, a username and password would be generate and provide you through email to access e-books and study materials allied to your programme code within five working days.
COMPLETE LEARNING OF STATEMENT (LOS)
In online education, lectures might be conducted online via Learning Management System (LMS) and instant chatting or messaging. Some course have ‘virtual’ classes; where the enrolled students participate through webcams sources. Through your unique username and password, students can access their profile, study materials, instructor guidance, assignments, quizzes, examination, scores, and so on.
MAKE IMPORTANT BOOKMARK FOR FUTURE ACCESS
In Every LOS, we are constantly reviewing the latest study materials being the very finest course material now available for your programme code. We provides the modified technology inside the portal likewise; the bookmark option to build a specified learning process. Bookmark is also an advantageous for future access. Your learning methods would be helpful to choose objectives. Bookmark giving you the chance to study exactly; what you need in directive to improvement.
MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES
Go Paperless! Online database are much easier than searching through paper files. LOS giving you the note preparation option at the time of study. It would be great method to create and deploy your own written notes for future admittance.
TAKE MULTIPLE QUIZZES FOR PRACTICE EXAM
LMS is the best virtual learning systems; to use their own login portal. Multiple quizzes are the most of the latest questions and updates related to the LOS. It would be flexible to practice for examination preparation.
INTERACT WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR FOR YOUR QUERIES.
Online learning system also provides a forum for discussion with instructor, where you can post and quickly ask your quarries, enhance and collaborate your learning experiences. It would be hard to mature a relationship with your online instructor, you may never meet, but it is worth the exertion to keep communicating and contacting through the online support system.
The assignment submission process diverges depending upon the course you enrolled. Assignment is definitely the indispensable thing in order to complete your programme. It comprises 5 questions with 1000 word limit. Assignment carries a 100% weightage for evaluation of examination. Some key instructions to get good grade in your assignment such as-
1. Read the study materials in depth from portal LOS.
2. Understand the assignment questions and keep within the word limit.
3. Write the assignments yourself which should be plagiarism free.
4. Complete the assignments in given duration and submit after date you will not able to access the assignment.
5. Write your answers in the appropriate format and add the references at the end of your assignment etc.
Online examination system is designed to offer you with an education wherever you are. There are a wide range multiple options. After the completion of the respective course duration, you would have access to your examination portal on the allotted date and time. In LMS examination procedure, you will allocated for examination in a particular time, so that you must give your examination in allocated date and time on your online examination portal.
1. You must have to complete your examination in given time period accordingly to your course instructor. You cannot attempt your examination twice.
2. If you are not able to attempt your examination, you must to inform your instructor prior the time period and give specific reason to conduct re-schedule examination date*.