Ballistics and Firearm Investigation is that discipline of Forensic which deals with the motion of projectile and the path it covers after being fired. Firearm investigation is a specialty of forensic science focusing on the examination of firearms and related subjects; whereas ballistics is the branch of applied physics which deals with the motion of projectile and conditions that govern the motion of projection. This area of study examines the path of a bullet from when it leaves the firearm up until it strikes the target. During investigations in which the use of firearms is suspected, a number of objects may be collected for examination and analysis, including firearms, cartridge cases, bullets, live ammunition, trace materials, and any material damaged by a projectile.
The study of firearms and ballistics is often divided into three: interior, exterior and terminal ballistics. Interior ballistics refers to the processes inside the firearm, the minute space of time between the shooter pulling the trigger and the bullet exiting the muzzle of the gun. It can also be defined as the process of imparting energy to projectile. Following this, external ballistics deals with the bullet’s flight between leaving the firearm and striking a target, or precisely it can be described as the performance of missile or the projectile both in air as well as in space. Finally, terminal ballistics, also known as impact ballistics, refers to the effect of the projectile/missile striking at the target.
In addition, along with the basics and principles of Forensic Ballistics and Firearm Investigation, the students will be familiarized with the usefulness and significance of live and spent cartridges as well as ammunition in forensic ballistics. The students will be given a detailed description of the application of physics and its techniques in determining the motion, speed, direction and other related facts concerned with the use of firearm at a crime scene. The firearm injuries and their chief characteristics are one of the key factors of the mentioned course structure.
MODULE 1 – BALLISTICS AND FIREARM
Forensic ballistics is the branch of forensic science that deals with weapons. This module will introduce you the history of firearm, branches of ballistics, the introduction to firearms and its parts such as barrel, action, stock, firing pin or striker, breech face, chamber, extractor and ejector, barrel, choked barrel and also include its classifications i.e. on the basis of bore, on the Basis of Loading Characteristics, on the Basis of Action Mechanism, on the Basis of Handling Condition and on the basis of velocity.
MODULE 2 – AMMUINITION
In this module, student will familiarize with the history of ammunition and different type of propellant, projectiles types such as lead pellets and jacketed bullet, primer and wad with their types and also consider the types of cartridge case and hand stamps.
MODULE 3 – MUZZLE LOADING FIREAMS
This module defines the detail description of muzzle loading firearms with the historical background. And also include percussion cap, projectile charge, wad, powder charge and contain the mechanism of muzzle loading firearms.
MODULE 4 – MECHANISM OF FIRING
In this module, student get the detailed description about the mechanism of firing of different types of firearm like shotgun, pistol, rifle, revolver and machine gun. The knowledge of mechanism of firing is important as the forensic aspects.
MODULE 5 – INTERNAL BALLISTICS
This module defines the internal ballistics as a branch of ballistics in which student will be able to learn about the ignition of the propellant, hang fire, pressure space curve, shot start pressure, Velocity and Space Curve that occur in the firearm. This module also includes the factors affecting the muzzle velocity and theory of recoil, Piobett law and Le Due’s formula for the understanding of internal ballistics.
MODULE 6 – EXTERNAL BALLISTICS
This module gives the detailed description of the external ballistics (the motion of projectile in the air). In the external ballistics, scholars will learn how the velocity of the projectile can be determined from the equation derived from motion of projectile. The principle problem of exterior ballistics and misfire which occur spontaneously due to the defect in the firearm.
MODULE 7 – TERMINAL BALLISTICS / FIREARM INJURIES
Firearm injuries as the name signifies will be dealing with various types of injuries and their nature such as wound ballistics – the target site, the velocity, constructional features and range. It also comprising the identification like pink coloration, blackening, tattooing, dirt ring, foreign materials, charring, contusion and wounds. Postmortem report, nature of firearm such as pistol and revolver injuries, rifle injuries, shotgun injuries, muzzle-loading firearm injuries and zip gun injuries. It will covers the postmortem or ante mortem injuries, fatal injuries and extraordinary facts, age of injuries. It also cover the evaluation of firearm injuries.
MODULE 8 – IMPROVISED FIREARMS
Improved firearms or advanced firearm would be explain you to its introduction, history, classification, characteristics of barrel, chamber, action and lock and the firing process with its evaluation.
MODULE 9 – MISCELLANEOUS
This module focusses on various firearm such as freak firearms, toy firearms, penetration power, and range of firearms, comparative calibers, bore diameters and conversion barrels.
MODULE 10 – PROBLEMS AND LOCATION
Problems in identification of firearms module would familiarize you to the Fired ammunition, firearm injuries, medico-legal problem, muzzle- loaders, live ammunition and fraudulent manipulation. Location will comprise the position of victim and culprit and the scene of occurrence.
MODULE 11 – COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF FIREARM EVIDENCE
Collection and preservation of firearm evidence would be accustomed to the collection of bullets, firearm, cartridge cases, slugs, clothes, glass fragments and discharge residues. Examination of the injuries, bullets holes and test exhibits.
MODULE 12 – EXAMINATION OF FIREARM EVIDENCE
Examination of Firearm Evidence module comprises the principle of examination, class and individual features of bullets and cartridges, text exhibits which includes ammunition, defective firearms, high velocity, rifles, damaged firearms, recovery and cleaning. In the module scholars will learn about different examination techniques such as stereoscopy, comparison microscopy, comparison camera, stereograph, periphery camera, photographic comparison, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis), AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) and AES (Atomic Emission Spectroscopy). This module also comprises the restoration of erased serial number of firearm evidence.
MODULE 13 – GUNSHOT RESIDUES
Gunshot residue (GSR) is the burnt and unburnt particles comes out from the firearm. This module provide the detailed information about different powders that is black powder residues, smokeless powder residues, its nature, location, collection (dry, wet method) and evaluation. Whereas evaluation method comprises of Visual Examination, Infra-Red Photography, Soft X-Ray Radiography, Dermal Nitrate Test, Walker’s Test, Harrison and Gilroy’s Test and Price’s Spot Test, Griess Test, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Flame-less Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (F-AAS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF).
MODULE 14 – SPECIAL SITUATION
This module deals with the special situations which can be seen in the cases oriented with forensic ballistic The topics covered under special situations module are damaged cartridge cases, damaged bullets, burnt bullets and cartridge cases, smooth barrel marks, buckshot and pellets and no firearm. These situation sometime become challenging for the investigator while dealing with the cases.
MODULE 15 – EXAMINATION OF RANGE OF FIRE
This module contains the detail regarding the examination of range which is the necessary step in estimating the range of firearm. This module provide the scholars a detail description about how to estimate the range of firearm with the help of muzzle patterns, scorching, blackening, tattooing, powder residues, metal particles, wad distribution, pellet patterns and direction of wound.
MODULE 16 – AUTOMATED FIREARM IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
This module will describe about different systems Automated Firearm Identification System (AFIS) such as National Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) and Integrated Ballistics Information (IBIS). These Automated Firearm Identification System are time consuming technique which help the expert in examining the firearm. Here in this module history, working principles, examination and limitations of Automated Firearm Identification System has been discussed in detail.
MODULE 17 – CRIME SCENE RECONSTRUCTION
Crime scene reconstruction help the investigator in rearrange the event happened at crime scene. This module will explain the learner about the major topics of photographing the crime scene, collection of relevant evidences and their analysis, formation of medico-legal report and theories helpful to solve crime.
MODULE 18 – COURTROOM PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE
In this module learner will be provided with the information of about expert opinion and evaluation of the case, experimental data, and illustration like cartridge cases, bullets and range. It will also comprise the medical evidence, language of the experts, cross-examination- to discredit the expert, to clarify evidence, to prove inadequate and to elicit additional evidence.
ONLINE EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION PROCESS
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled in online courses. After the completion of the respective course duration, you will be notified with your exam date and other required details. You are supposed to access your examination portal on the allotted date and time for giving your exam. Concerned authorities will assist you, if you face any kind of problem during your exam.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
You will have combination of Multiple Choice Questions, in the form of multiple option and True & False.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the given postal address by address confirmation. Therefore, the students are always requested to mention their correct and complete address on their application form, in order to avoid further confusion and disappointment.
Note: Every student must check their email for examination notifications and other updates. Also you are supposed to update your recent postal address and other relevant details
SIFS INDIA, provides online education for Certificate, Diploma, and PG Diploma courses in the Forensic Science discipline. The Forensic Science programmes are appropriate for all students of any discipline. The course is ideal for those who, whim to secure a stand-alone certification in Forensic Science and whose first degree is in an unrelated field. We aims to provide a thorough education in Forensic Science from a variety of perspectives with multiple dimensions.
After completion of the enrollment processes, a username and password would be generate and provide you through email to access e-books and study materials allied to your programme code within five working days.
COMPLETE LEARNING OF STATEMENT (LOS)
In online education, lectures might be conducted online via Learning Management System (LMS) and instant chatting or messaging. Some course have ‘virtual’ classes; where the enrolled students participate through webcams sources. Through your unique username and password, students can access their profile, study materials, instructor guidance, assignments, quizzes, examination, scores, and so on.
MAKE IMPORTANT BOOKMARK FOR FUTURE ACCESS
In Every LOS, we are constantly reviewing the latest study materials being the very finest course material now available for your programme code. We provides the modified technology inside the portal likewise; the bookmark option to build a specified learning process. Bookmark is also an advantageous for future access. Your learning methods would be helpful to choose objectives. Bookmark giving you the chance to study exactly; what you need in directive to improvement.
MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES
Go Paperless! Online database are much easier than searching through paper files. LOS giving you the note preparation option at the time of study. It would be great method to create and deploy your own written notes for future admittance.
TAKE MULTIPLE QUIZZES FOR PRACTICE EXAM
LMS is the best virtual learning systems; to use their own login portal. Multiple quizzes are the most of the latest questions and updates related to the LOS. It would be flexible to practice for examination preparation.
INTERACT WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR FOR YOUR QUERIES.
Online learning system also provides a forum for discussion with instructor, where you can post and quickly ask your quarries, enhance and collaborate your learning experiences. It would be hard to mature a relationship with your online instructor, you may never meet, but it is worth the exertion to keep communicating and contacting through the online support system.
The assignment submission process diverges depending upon the course you enrolled. Assignment is definitely the indispensable thing in order to complete your programme. It comprises 5 questions with 1000 word limit. Assignment carries a 100% weightage for evaluation of examination. Some key instructions to get good grade in your assignment such as-
1. Read the study materials in depth from portal LOS.
2. Understand the assignment questions and keep within the word limit.
3. Write the assignments yourself which should be plagiarism free.
4. Complete the assignments in given duration and submit after date you will not able to access the assignment.
5. Write your answers in the appropriate format and add the references at the end of your assignment etc.
Online examination system is designed to offer you with an education wherever you are. There are a wide range multiple options. After the completion of the respective course duration, you would have access to your examination portal on the allotted date and time. In LMS examination procedure, you will allocated for examination in a particular time, so that you must give your examination in allocated date and time on your online examination portal.
1. You must have to complete your examination in given time period accordingly to your course instructor. You cannot attempt your examination twice.
2. If you are not able to attempt your examination, you must to inform your instructor prior the time period and give specific reason to conduct re-schedule examination date*.