The word “Odontology” is comprised of two Greek words “odonto” which suggests “tooth” and “logos” mean “study”, also termed as “Forensic Dentistry”. Therefore, in a very precise manner, dentistry are often outlined as a science that deals with the study of human dentition. However in broad terms, Forensic dentistry, additionally referred to as Forensic medical specialty, is that the application of dental experience to system or for the aim of law or justice. The scope of Forensic dentistry focuses on 3 main aspects that are: the identification of unknown remains by teeth, jaw and craniofacial remains, analysis of oro-facial trauma connected with personal abuse and dental jurisprudence.
The history of the respective Forensic medical specialty dates back to forty nine B.C. once Agrippina (mother of Emperor of Rome Nero) ordered the death of her rival Lollia Paulina, who was rival with her, to be the better half of Emperor Claudius. Agrippina needed to check Paulina's head as a symptom of her death, however she wasn't certain that her challenger was dead till she detected Paulina's distinctive stained front teeth.
Another noted case of Forensic dentistry recorded in history was that of Paul Revere, who additionally to being associate Yankee silver-worker was additionally a tooth doctor. He was the one who helped establish the identity of the Revolutionary War dead World Health Organization had been buried on the piece of ground, on the idea of their teeth and dental work.
Human Dentition has three characteristics in common, that imparts a noticeably distinctive and salient mode of identification by the utilization of dental records. The 3 distinctive traits are, they being diphyodont (occur in two generations), thecodont (being embedded in a bony socket) and heterodont (bearing typical morphological structures).
General Applications of Forensic dentistry in legal prospects are: Forensic medical specialty plays an important role in establishing associate personal identity of the unidentified human remains. Within the cases of mass disasters, wherever the quantity of deceased exceeds the capability of native jurisdiction answerable for Forensic investigation; then Forensic dentistry is that the final and most powerful tool which will be used for the identification of mass disaster victim’s by analysing their ante-mortem dental records. Bite-mark analysis is that the most vital requisite of a Forensic Odontologist. Bite-mark injuries are unremarkably encountered in cases associated with sexual assaults, ill-treatment or abuse etc. Bite-marks are of great worth, as they will facilitate in establishing the identity of the wrongdoer of the crime. In cases of alleged abuse, bite-mark analysis is of utmost significance, as already mentioned. But, in addition disfigurement of oro-facial bones owing to injury will aid within the assessment of cases of abuse. Age estimation of associate unidentified body are often done close to victimization the dental records. As a matter of reality, we tend to all recognize that at a particular age solely bound teeth erupt. Thus, estimation older is of prime importance for associate investigator. In addition, associate professional Forensic odontologists will even confirm the race associated sex of an unidentified stay.
This course would very competently and with an apt practical sessions would provide the students to understand and acquaint themselves with the basics of the science of dentistry and its utility in cases pertaining to legal admissibility of the bite-marks.
MODULE 1 – FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
Forensic odontology is the application of dental science to legal investigations, which involves the identification of the criminal by comparing its dental records with the bite mark left at the scene of crime or on the victim. This module has given a brief overview to the Forensic Odontology which majorly covers its various aspects like historical perspective, career, scope and role of forensic odontologist, qualification required to become a forensic dentist and medico-legal significance.
MODULE 2 – HUMAN TOOTH DEVELOPMENT
This module provide the information about the development of human tooth from its initial level, endodontic anatomy of tooth, its types and function, chronological pattern of the development of human dentition, process of eruption and shedding (pattern, mechanism and clinical consideration) of deciduous & permanent teeth. This also covers different forces effecting sequence of eruption, notation system (universal, Zsigmondy and Federation Dentaire Internationale) applied and dental anomalies encountered in dental.
MODULE 3 – DECIDUOUS AND PERMANENT TEETH
Humans mainly have two types of teeth in their lifetime one is primary or deciduous dentition (erupts in an infant) while another is permanent or secondary dentition (erupts after the shedding of the milk/deciduous teeth). Therefore this module covers the general description, chronological development and significance of deciduous and permanent teeth. Module also provide information about mixed dentition and the significant point of difference between the deciduous and permanent dentition.
MODULE 4 – OCCLUSION
Occlusion is the phenomena of natural contacting between the maxillary teeth to the mandibular teeth. A detailed study of occlusion as well as different aspects related to the study of occlusal surface covered in this module. Therefore this module provide detailed information about the topics-development of occlusion, factors affecting occlusion, cups, fossa and marginal ridge relations, lateral, protrusive and retrusive movements, biomechanics of chewing function, malocclusion and clinical significance of normal occlusion.
MODULE 5 – DENTAL ANOMALIES
Any changes present due positioning, shape, size, number, appearance, structure, color, etc. or in any other feature of teeth will referred to as dental anomaly. These alterations in the tooth are found prevalently in the maxillary region than the mandibular region and the also the chances of occurrence of these anomalies are more in the permanent dentition. So, this module provide the detailed information of development anomalies present in teeth due to its size, number, shape, structure, color and in other structures like jaws, gingiva, tongue.
MODULE 6 – HUMAN TOOTH IDENTIFICATION
This module provides the information of about history, purpose, principles and different aspects of human tooth identification. Basically there are two forms of dental identification i.e. comparative dental identification and reconstructive dental identification. Human dental identification comprising of three steps i.e. postmortem dental identification, ante mortem dental identification and comparison of postmortem and antemortem dental records. Whereas in reconstructive dental identification, forensic odontologist attempts to elicit the population affinity or race, sex, age, and occupation of the deceased. This module also covers the topic of DNA profiling, identification through palatal rugae, medical conditions and treatment, habits and addiction and occupational hazards.
MODULE 7 – AGE ESTIMATION
Age is known as the important factors for the determination of a person’s identity. This is the identification process that comes under the sub discipline of forensic science and mainly essential when the identity of the deceased is unknown. This module also encompasses with the principles of age estimation using dentition, need of age estimation, and chronological age estimation. The establishment of chronological age is considered as an important topic for most of the society, social benefits, marriage and employments. The module also covers the topic dentition as an age indicator, morphological methods for the assessment of age in adults and age related changes in teeth.
MODULE 8 – FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY IN MASS DISASTERS AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Mass disasters occurs in a sudden and unforeseen fashion and they generally ranges from natural to man-made disasters, finite, ongoing, open and closed ones. DVI helps in managing the scene of catastrophe in an organized and sequential way. The module encompasses introduction, history, types of mass disasters and disaster scene management including the organization, duties and functions of various dental teams. The module will also enrich the knowledge of student about Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).
MODULE 9 – BITE MARKS
This particular module has explicitly dealt with the introduction of the Bite marks including the history, nature and the mechanism of bite mark. The module also covers the nomenclature, classification on different basis, impression and study casts. This module also describes the appearance and factors affecting Bite marks Injuries also the significance of bite marks as a physical, biological and Psychological evidence.
MODULE 10 – BITE MARK ANALYSIS
This particular module explains about the introduction and history of the bite mark analysis. The different steps involved in bite mark investigation are also discussed here. The analysis of the bite mark which is discussed in this module is used for finding the victims and the suspect from the starting of the history recorded. The analysis include the examination and comparison of the bite mark evidence. Significance and limitations of the bite mark evidence are also explained here, which enrich the student’s knowledge.
MODULE 11 – ROLE OF DENTISTRY IN DETECTING AND PREVENTING CHILD ABUSE
In this module, occurrence of child abuse and neglect in worldwide has been discussed, as well as the importance of the dental professionals in recognizing and reporting the abuse. Child abuse is a complex problem, therefore the major aim of all the dental professional is to understand the clinical symptoms of different types of child abuse such as physical, sexual, emotional and dental neglect and needful for legal consideration by documenting the injuries and reporting to the child protective services. The module also encompasses the appropriate intervention, role of dentist, documentation, reporting suspicious and Prevent Abuse and Neglect through Dental Awareness (P.A.N.D.A).
MODULE 12 – LEGAL ISSUES CONCERNING BITE MARK EVIDENCE
Forensic odontologist plays an important role in criminal and civil both cases by giving opinion regarding dental identification of the deceased, identification of suspect’s dentition from tooth mark within a pattern injury related to human abuses and identification of victims in mass disasters. The main objective of the forensic odontologist is to provide witness testimony in the court of law in criminal cases for identifying the deceased. Present module gives the information regarding the legal factors of evidence collection and its use in court, fourth amendment: arrest, search and seizure, admissibility of expert evidence based on relevancy and reliability, national academy of science (2009) review of bite mark evidence, types of dental testimony by dentists. The module also covers the information about who can testify as an expert on bite mark evidence, court admissibility of bite mark opinion, scientific limitation of bite mark testimony and wrongful bite marks testimony that were overturned by DNA.
ONLINE EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION PROCESS
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled in online courses. After the completion of the respective course duration, you will be notified with your exam date and other required details. You are supposed to access your examination portal on the allotted date and time for giving your exam. Concerned authorities will assist you, if you face any kind of problem during your exam.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
You will have combination of Multiple Choice Questions, in the form of multiple option and True & False.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the given postal address by address confirmation. Therefore, the students are always requested to mention their correct and complete address on their application form, in order to avoid further confusion and disappointment.
Note: Every student must check their email for examination notifications and other updates. Also you are supposed to update your recent postal address and other relevant details.
SIFS INDIA, provides online education for Certificate, Diploma, and PG Diploma courses in the Forensic Science discipline. The Forensic Science programmes are appropriate for all students of any discipline. The course is ideal for those who, whim to secure a stand-alone certification in Forensic Science and whose first degree is in an unrelated field. We aims to provide a thorough education in Forensic Science from a variety of perspectives with multiple dimensions.
After completion of the enrollment processes, a username and password would be generate and provide you through email to access e-books and study materials allied to your programme code within five working days.
COMPLETE LEARNING OF STATEMENT (LOS)
In online education, lectures might be conducted online via Learning Management System (LMS) and instant chatting or messaging. Some course have ‘virtual’ classes; where the enrolled students participate through webcams sources. Through your unique username and password, students can access their profile, study materials, instructor guidance, assignments, quizzes, examination, scores, and so on.
MAKE IMPORTANT BOOKMARK FOR FUTURE ACCESS
In Every LOS, we are constantly reviewing the latest study materials being the very finest course material now available for your programme code. We provides the modified technology inside the portal likewise; the bookmark option to build a specified learning process. Bookmark is also an advantageous for future access. Your learning methods would be helpful to choose objectives. Bookmark giving you the chance to study exactly; what you need in directive to improvement.
MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES
Go Paperless! Online database are much easier than searching through paper files. LOS giving you the note preparation option at the time of study. It would be great method to create and deploy your own written notes for future admittance.
TAKE MULTIPLE QUIZZES FOR PRACTICE EXAM
LMS is the best virtual learning systems; to use their own login portal. Multiple quizzes are the most of the latest questions and updates related to the LOS. It would be flexible to practice for examination preparation.
INTERACT WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR FOR YOUR QUERIES.
Online learning system also provides a forum for discussion with instructor, where you can post and quickly ask your quarries, enhance and collaborate your learning experiences. It would be hard to mature a relationship with your online instructor, you may never meet, but it is worth the exertion to keep communicating and contacting through the online support system.
The assignment submission process diverges depending upon the course you enrolled. Assignment is definitely the indispensable thing in order to complete your programme. It comprises 5 questions with 1000 word limit. Assignment carries a 100% weightage for evaluation of examination. Some key instructions to get good grade in your assignment such as-
1. Read the study materials in depth from portal LOS.
2. Understand the assignment questions and keep within the word limit.
3. Write the assignments yourself which should be plagiarism free.
4. Complete the assignments in given duration and submit after date you will not able to access the assignment.
5. Write your answers in the appropriate format and add the references at the end of your assignment etc.
Online examination system is designed to offer you with an education wherever you are. There are a wide range multiple options. After the completion of the respective course duration, you would have access to your examination portal on the allotted date and time. In LMS examination procedure, you will allocated for examination in a particular time, so that you must give your examination in allocated date and time on your online examination portal.
1. You must have to complete your examination in given time period accordingly to your course instructor. You cannot attempt your examination twice.
2. If you are not able to attempt your examination, you must to inform your instructor prior the time period and give specific reason to conduct re-schedule examination date*.