DNA Fingerprinting, also termed as DNA Profiling, Genotyping, DNA Typing or Genetic Fingerprinting is one of the most recent advancements in Forensic Science. This technique was discovered by Sir. Alec Jeffreys in 1984. While going through this network, he noticed that certain sequences of highly variable DNA (known as minisatellites), do not contribute to the functions of genes, and are repeated within genes. Jeffreys recognized that each individual has a unique pattern of minisatellites (the only exceptions being multiple individuals from a single zygote, such as identical twins). For the extraction of DNA, a sample of cells such as skin, hair, blood, saliva etc. is required.
According to this technique, the DNA is extracted from the cells of skin, hair, blood, saliva etc., and then it is purified. Jeffrey’s original approach was based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). In the RFLP technology, the DNA was cut at specific points along the strand with proteins known as restriction enzymes. The enzymes produced fragments of varying lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to an electric current (electrophoresis): the shorter the fragment, the more quickly it moved toward the positive pole (anode). The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments were then subjected to a blotting technique in which they were split into single strands and transferred to a nylon sheet. The fragments underwent autoradiography in which they were exposed to DNA probes—pieces of synthetic DNA that were made radioactive and that bound to the minisatellites. A piece of X-ray film was then exposed to the fragments, and a dark mark was produced at any point where a radioactive probe had become attached. The resultant pattern of marks could then be analyzed. Other than RFLP, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Short Tandem Repeats (STR) and Variable Number Tandem Repeats are also used for the analysis procedure.
Module-1 DNA fingerprinting
DNA fingerprinting is a test to recognize the genetic material known as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in an individual's cells. It is known as "Fingerprint" because it is very improbable that any two persons would have accurately similar DNA information. In the other same way that it is very questionable that any two persons would have exactly the same fingerprint. This is used to conclude whether a family relationship happens between two persons, to identify organisms producing an ailment, and to resolve crime. Module would be introducing you to the DNA profiling structure & analysis, history of DNA fingerprinting, human genetics – heredity, alleles, mutations and population genetic, molecular biology of DNA, variations, polymorphism DNA system, RFLP analysis, PCR amplifications, sequence polymorphism, analysis of SNP, y-STR and mitochondrial DNA.
Module-2 Evaluation of result of DNA profiling
This procedure is used as one worth of identification once an assailant has left some kind of biological fluid or blood sample at the crime scene and when no visual credentials is possible. It will define you isolation from blood, purification and quantifications, preparation of lectins and testing their activities against body fluids & tissues, frequency calculations, interpretation, allele frequency determination, Match probability- database and quality control and certification and accreditation.
Module-3 Forensic significance of DNA profiling
DNA profiling has concerned a good contract of public courtesy. The practical applications of DNA technologies to identify the genetic material has an important influence on Forensic Biology, because it allows much stronger decisions of uniqueness or differences to be made. Module will introduce you to the application in disputed paternity cases and child swapping, missing person’s identity- immigration, veterinary, wild life and agriculture cases, determination of origin of species of human and animal from- bones, hair, flesh, nails, skin, teeth body tissue, fluids/stains vs. blood, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tear, pus, vomit etc. Through immuno-diffusion and immuno-electrophoresis and cross reactivity among closely related species can be determined.
Module-4 Legal perspective in DNA evidences
This module is framed to make the students understand what actually DNA fingerprinting is all about. This module would help students gather information and use of application of DNA techniques in the legal proceedings. Under this module, legal standard for admissibility of DNA profiling- procedural & ethical concerns and status of development of DNA profiling in India & abroad, new & future technologies- DNA chips, SNPS, DNA cloning and limitations of DNA profiling.
Module-5 Serology and genetic markers
Under this module, students would be taught about the introduction to serology and genetic markers, structure and functions- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, serum proteins and cellular proteins. Basic concepts of genetic- Mendelian genetics, genotypes, phenotypes, mutation, multiple alleles, genetic variants and biochemical genetics, gene structure its frequency determination, gene mapping and gene expression and genetic markers and their forensic significance will be taught.
Module-6 Serogenetic markers
It basically defines the identification of donor with the help of blood sample, of the several blood markers, ABO is more usually done for blood in laboratories and very less generally done for urine, saliva, and semen. Module would introduce you to the blood groups systems, history of blood groups, biochemistry and genetics- ABO, Rh, MN and other systems. Introducing methods of ABO blood grouping (absorption-inhibition, mixed agglutination and absorption) from blood stains and other body fluids/stains viz. menstrual blood, semen, saliva, sweat, tear, pus, vomit, hair, bone, nail etc. Then blood group specific ABH substances, determination of secretor/ non secretor status, Lewis antigen, polymorphic enzymes typing – PGM, GLO – I, ESD, EAP, AK, ADA etc., and their forensic significance, HLA typing, Role of Serogenetic markers in individualization and paternity disputes etc.
ONLINE EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION PROCESS
The mode of examination will be online for the students enrolled in online courses. After the completion of the respective course duration, you would have access to your examination portal on the allotted date and time, and accordingly you would be notify by the concerned authorities to check mails, so that you must give your examination in allocated date and time on our online examination portal.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
You will have combination of Multiple Choice Questions, in the form of multiple option, True & False, Fill in the Blanks, Match the Following, Sequences Questions, Multiple Response Questions, Passage and Image Description form.
The complete correction and evaluation takes about two weeks. After the evaluation process is finally done, the mark sheets and certificates are posted on to the given postal address by address confirmation. If any change in postal address student must notify after completion of Examination.
Note: Every student must have to check email for examination notifications and other updates. Also you have update your recent postal address and so on.
SIFS INDIA, provides online education for certificate, Diploma, and PG Diploma courses in the Forensic Science discipline. The Forensic Science programmes are appropriate for all students of any discipline. The course is ideal for those who, whim to secure a stand-alone certification in Forensic Science and whose first degree is in an unrelated field. We aims to provide a thorough education in Forensic Science from a variety of perspectives with multiple dimensions.
After completion of the enrollment processes, a username and password would be generate and provide you through email to access e-books and study materials allied to your programme code within five working days.
Complete Learning of Statement (LOS)
In online education, lectures might be conducted online via Learning Management System (LMS) and instant chatting or messaging. Some course have ‘virtual’ classes; where the enrolled students participate through webcams sources. Through your unique username and password, students can access their profile, study materials, instructor guidance, assignments, quizzes, examination, scores, and so on.
Make important bookmark for future access
In Every LOS, we are constantly reviewing the latest study materials being the very finest course material now available for your programme code. We provides the modified technology inside the portal likewise; the bookmark option to build a specified learning process. Bookmark is also an advantageous for future access. Your learning methods would be helpful to choose objectives. Bookmark giving you the chance to study exactly; what you need in directive to improvement.
Make your own notes
Go Paperless! Online database are much easier than searching through paper files. LOS giving you the note preparation option at the time of study. It would be great method to create and deploy your own written notes for future admittance.
Take multiple quizzes for practice exam
LMS is the best virtual learning systems; to use their own login portal. Multiple quizzes are the most of the latest questions and updates related to the LOS. It would be flexible to practice for examination preparation.
Interact with your instructor for your queries.
Online learning system also provides a forum for discussion with instructor, where you can post and quickly ask your quarries, enhance and collaborate your learning experiences. It would be hard to mature a relationship with your online instructor, you may never meet, but it is worth the exertion to keep communicating and contacting through the online support system.
The assignment submission process diverges depending upon the course you enrolled. Assignment is definitely the indispensable thing in order to complete your programme. It comprises 5 questions with 1000 word limit. Assignment carries a 100% weightage for evaluation of examination. Some key instructions to get good grade in your assignment such as-
1. Read the study materials in depth from portal LOS.
2. Understand the assignment questions and keep within the word limit.
3. Write the assignments yourself which should be plagiarism free.
4. Complete the assignments in given duration and submit after date you will not able to access the assignment.
5. Write your answers in the appropriate format and add the references at the end of your assignment etc.
Online examination system is designed to offer you with an education wherever you are. There are a wide range multiple options. After the completion of the respective course duration, you would have access to your examination portal on the allotted date and time. In LMS examination procedure, you will allocated for examination in a particular time, so that you must give your examination in allocated date and time on your online examination portal.
Note: 1.You must have to complete your examination in given time period accordingly to your course instructor. You cannot attempt your examination twice.
2. If you are not able to attempt your examination, you must to inform your instructor prior the time period and give specific reason to conduct re-schedule examination date*.